Gerbner and Gross assert: Its function is in a word, enculturation ".
Yet, while a stringent moralism held in check endemic subversion and anarchy, Darwinism and the machine analogy stimulated endless forms of self-consciousness. If man could fashion and continually improve these engines, perhaps he could also engineer an improved society.
Because evolution was at last… Fundamental questions The etymological origins of the term democracy hint at a number of urgent problems that go far beyond semantic issues. A town or city? Is every member of the association entitled to participate in governing it?
If it includes only a subset of the adult population, how small can the subset be before the association ceases to be a democracy and becomes something else, such as an aristocracy government by the best, aristos or an oligarchy government by the few, oligos?
What political organizations or institutions will they need?
Will these institutions differ between different kinds of associations—for example, a small town and a large country? Should a majority always prevail, or should minorities sometimes be empowered to block or overcome majority rule?
A majority of all citizens? A majority of voters? Should a proper majority comprise not individual citizens but certain groups or associations of citizens, such as hereditary groups or territorial associations? Is democracy really better than aristocracy or monarchy? What conditions, in addition to this one, favour the continued existence of democracy?
What conditions are harmful to it? Why have some democracies managed to endure, even through periods of severe crisis, while so many others have collapsed? Democratic institutions Since the time of the ancient Greeks, both the theory and the practice of democracy have undergone profound changes, many of which have concerned the prevailing answers to questions 1 through 3 above.
This change in turn entailed a new answer to question 3: Representative democracy would require a set of political institutions radically different from those of all earlier democracies. Another important change has concerned the prevailing answers to question 2.
Until fairly recently, most democratic associations limited the right to participate in government to a minority of the adult population—indeed, sometimes to a very small minority.
Beginning in the 20th century, this right was extended to nearly all adults. Prehistoric forms of democracy Although it is tempting to assume that democracy was created in one particular place and time—most often identified as Greece about the year bce—evidence suggests that democratic government, in a broad sense, existed in several areas of the world well before the turn of the 5th century.
It is plausible to assume that democracy in one form or another arises naturally in any well-bounded group, such as a tribeif the group is sufficiently independent of control by outsiders to permit members to run their own affairs and if a substantial number of members, such as tribal elders, consider themselves about equally qualified to participate in decisions about matters of concern to the group as a whole.
This assumption has been supported by studies of nonliterate tribal societies, which suggest that democratic government existed among many tribal groups during the thousands of years when human beings survived by hunting and gathering.
When the lengthy period of hunting and gathering came to an end and humans began to settle in fixed communitiesprimarily for agriculture and trade, the conditions that favour popular participation in government seem to have become rare.
As a result, popular governments among settled peoples vanished, to be replaced for thousands of years by governments based on monarchy, despotism, aristocracy, or oligarchyeach of which came to be seen—at least among the dominant members of these societies—as the most natural form of government.
Then, about bce, conditions favourable to democracy reappeared in several places, and a few small groups began to create popular governments. Primitive democracy, one might say, was reinvented in more advanced forms. The most crucial developments occurred in two areas of the Mediterranean, Greece and Rome.
Classical Greece During the Classical period corresponding roughly to the 5th and 4th centuries bceGreece was of course not a country in the modern sense but a collection of several hundred independent city-states, each with its surrounding countryside.
In bce, under the leadership of Cleisthenesthe citizens of Athens began to develop a system of popular rule that would last nearly two centuries. To question 1, then, the Greeks responded clearly: The political association most appropriate to democratic government is the polisor city-state.
Athenian democracy foreshadowed some later democratic practices, even among peoples who knew little or nothing of the Athenian system. One scholar has suggested that in the mid-4th century there may have been aboutcitizens, 10, resident foreigners, or metic s, and as many asslaves.
Among citizens, about 30, were males over Regarding question 3—What political institutions are necessary for governing?the analysis of processes into parts: the inputs, the method of transformation, and the outputs. the nature of continuing processes (life, work, digestion, a business, an economic system) the distinction between an activity and a state of being.
Cultivation theory examines the long-term effects of television. "The primary proposition of cultivation theory states that the more time people spend 'living' in the television world, the more likely they are to believe social reality aligns with reality portrayed on television.".
Jul 05, · Welcome! › Forums › Meditation Forum › Goenka´s Vipassana Tagged: goenka vipassana, sati This topic contains 55 replies, has 12 voices, and was last updated by Lal 4 months, 1 week ago. Author Posts December 25, at pm # DParticipant Hi!
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