The Digestive Tract of the Pig 1 J. Fisher 2 The pig has a digestive system which is classified as monogastric or nonruminant. Humans also have this type of digestive system.
Digestive System of the Pig: The digestive system of a pig is well suited for complete concentrate based rations that are typically fed. The entire digestive tract is relatively simple in terms of the organs involved, which are connected in a continuous musculo-membanous tube from mouth to anus.
Yet this multi-faceted system involves many complex interactive functions. The goal of this paper is to describe the organs involved in digestive and biological functions Figure 1.
Digestive anatomy of the pig Mouth The Digestive system of the pig serves a valuable role not only for the consumption of food but it also provides for the initial partial size reduction though grinding. While teeth serve the main role in grinding to reduce food size and increase surface area, the first action to begin the chemical breakdown of food occurs when feed is mixed with saliva.
There are three main salivary glands, which include the parotid, mandibular and sub-lingual glands.
Saliva secretion is a reflex act stimulated by the presence of food in the mouth. The amount of mucus present in saliva is regulated by the dryness or moistness of the food consumed. Thereby in a dry diet, more saliva mucus is secreted while in a moist diet, only an amount to assist with swallowing is secreted.
Saliva generally contains very low levels of amylase, the enzyme that hydrolyses starch to maltose. The contribution of digestive enzymes from saliva is minor but still noteworthy. Once food is chewed and mixed with saliva, it passes though the mouth, pharynx and then the oesophagus to the stomach.
Movement though the oesophagus involves muscle peristalsis, whichis the contraction and relaxation of muscles to move the food. Stomach The stomach is a muscular organ responsible for storage, initiating the breakdown of nutrients, and passing the digesta into the small intestine.
The stomach has four distinct areas which include the oesophageal, cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions Figure 2. The oesophageal region is located at the entrance of the stomach from the oesophagus. This region of the stomach does not secrete digestive enzymes but has significance in that this is where ulcer formation in pigs occurs.
Irritation in this area due to fine particle size, stress or other environmental factors can contribute to ulcer formation in swine.
Once food passes though this region, it enters the cardiac region. In the cardiac portion of the stomach, mucus is secreted and mixed with the digested food. Food then passes into the fundic region which is the first major portion of the stomach that begins the digestive process.
In this region, gastric glands secrete hydrochloric acid, resulting in a low pH of 1. This reduced pH kills bacteria ingested with the feed. Other secretions in this region are present in the form of digestive enzymes, specifically pepsinogen.
Pepsinogen is then broken down by the hydrochloric acid to form pepsin, which is involved with the breakdown of proteins.
Finally the digesta moves to the bottom of the stomach, which is the pyloric region. This region is responsible for secreting mucus to line the digestive membranes to prevent damage from the low pH digesta as it passes to the small intestine.
The phloric sphincter regulates the amount of chyme digesta that passes into the small intestine. This is an important function not to overload the small intestine with chyme so proper and efficient digestion and absorption of nutrients occurs.
In addition, once the chyme leaves the stomach, the material is quite fluid in consistency. Regions of the stomach Small Intestine, Pancreas and Liver The small intestine is the major site of nutrient absorption, and is divided into three sections. The first section is the duodenum.
The duodenum is approximately 12 inches long and is the portion of the small intestine that ducts from the pancreas and the liver gall bladder.Treatment of coccidiosis may include sulfamethazine in drinking water.
The control of coccidiosis in newborn piglets infected with I suis has been unreliable.
The use of coccidiostats in the feed of the sow for several days or a few weeks before and after farrowing has been recommended and used in the field, but the results are variable. The monogastric digestive system of the fetal pig harbors many similarities with many other mammals. The fetal pig's digestive organs are well developed before birth, although it does not ingest food.
These organs include the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines. The pig’s digestive system starts with the oral cavity which consists of its tongue, the epiglottis, teeth and salivary glands.
The tongue helps roll the food into small pieces of food so the pig can digest it easier. The epiglottis stops food from entering the lungs through the trachea. This is.
An overview of the pig's digestive system - mouth, stomach, small and large intestines by Joel DeRouchey and colleagues at Kansas State University's Applied Swine Nutrition Team, presented at the Swine Profitability Conference The digestive system of a pig is well suited for complete.
The tongue often protrudes from the anterior opening of the oral cavity. The tongue is a highly manipulative, muscular structure, that contributes to chewing, swallowing, and sensing food. The tongue is a highly manipulative, muscular structure, that contributes to chewing, swallowing, and sensing food.
Welcome to the Whitman College Biology Department's Virtual Pig Dissection (VPD)! This site is designed as a supplement to laboratory dissections exploring introductory mammalian anatomy and physiology — it is basic and many details have been omitted for clarity.