Journal encourages citation of data, code, and materials, or says nothing. Journal describes citation of data in guidelines to authors with clear rules and examples. Article provides appropriate citation for data and materials used consistent with journal's author guidelines.
Their policies and standpoints are based primarily on information developed through scientific practices, but they also reflect Genetics research paper guidelines concerns, including the conservation of the diversity and abundance of fish populations, and respect for life and life processes.
Further, these societies believe that their members are responsible not only for advancing scientific knowledge and understanding of fish and fisheries but also for improving human appreciation for these animals and the industries that they support. All three societies actively promote research and the dissemination of information derived from that research.
They also advocate respect for life processes, respect for the forms of life within various ecosystems, and the humane treatment of animals used in research investigations.
Fishes are worthy of experimental and observational research: Further, fishes are economically important through recreational and commercial activities in that they provide an important source of food for humans and other animals and are popular to catch and to observe. The authors of the Guidelines for the Use of Fishes in Research referred to hereinafter as the Guidelines are scientists, have respect for life, and are professionally trained in a multitude of disciplines.
The current version is in answer to the call for a periodic document review and update, with a similar suggestion noted herein. The understanding and Genetics research paper guidelines of animals used in research can be served best by using a multidisciplinary approach in which data and expertise are derived from such disciplines as ecology, behavioral studies, nutrition, genetics, toxicology, chemistry, endocrinology, physiology, anatomy, and fish health.
At the same time, understanding that research is conducted in a variety of human cultural settings is important. Ideally, scientific procedures, analytical methods, data interpretations, and conclusions based on scientific studies should be consistent across all cultures; however, personal belief systems can and do influence concepts regarding which practices and methods are, or are not, consistent with humane treatment of animals.
The and Guidelines not only reflect the scientific expertise of both UFR Committees but also provide a framework for the promotion of scientifically valid research on fish and fish habitats and for research that is conducted in a manner acceptable to the social communities within which the research takes place.
The Guidelines address both field and laboratory research with fishes and will serve as a resource document on topical themes.
Specific information in response to United States laws is a focus here, yet these Guidelines can be applied and adapted internationally by investigators working within their own institutional infrastructure with regard to animal care and use committees.
Internet pathway links to various Web sites and documents are included; however, such pathways to online media may change. Acknowledgments The UFR Committees that produced the and Guidelines gave generously of their time and expertise by developing, updating, and revising sections.
We thank peer reviewers: Finally, we acknowledge Bill Fisher, past AFS President, for appointing the current UFR Committee and current President Robert Hughes in helping AFS continue its tradition of advancing sound science and disseminating science-based fisheries information for the global protection, conservation, and sustainability of fishery resources and aquatic ecosystems.
Hughes are also thanked for their careful reviews.
Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U. Jenkins, Chair, UFR Committee, Statement of Purpose The and Guidelines were developed to provide a structure that advances appropriate attention toward valid experimental designs and procedures with aquatic animals while ensuring humane treatment of the experimental subjects.
At a practical level, the Guidelines are intended to provide general recommendations on field and laboratory endeavors, such as sampling, holding, and handling fishes; to offer information on administrative matters, including regulations and permits; and to address typical ethical concerns, such as perceptions of pain or discomfort experienced by experimental subjects.
These Guidelines must be recognized as guidelines.
They are not intended to provide detailed instructions but rather to alert investigators to a broad array of topics and concerns to consider prior to initiating study. At a comprehensive level, the principles upon which these Guidelines are based are broadly applicable, and many of the described practices and approaches can be adapted to situations involving other aquatic animal species and conditions.
Understanding the differences between fishes and other vertebrates, especially mammals, is critically important to conducting scientifically sound research with fishes. Disparities in life histories and mortality rates in fishes versus other vertebrates are critical in designing sustainable sampling levels in fish populations.
The UFR Committee points out that 1 compared to mammalian populations, adult populations of many fish species persist despite very high natural mortality rates in juvenile stages by virtue of the fact that most species lay thousands or tens of thousands of eggs; 2 because of these mortality patterns, research on fishes, especially field research or research on early life stages, can involve, and often requires, much larger numbers of research subjects than does research on mammals; and 3 the animal handling and husbandry requirements for fishes are fundamentally different from those for mammals and other vertebrates, in general.
Policies, regulations, and recommendations developed for research on mammals, birds, reptiles, or even amphibians are frequently inappropriate for research with fishes.
The Guidelines also address some of the ethical concerns that motivate guidelines used for research with other vertebrates, while being mindful of the unique physiology and general nature of fishes.
The Guidelines were developed for general use by investigators within the United States; therefore, the roles, responsibilities, and informational needs of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees IACUCs were given specific attention.
Investigators from other nations who read this document may disregard specific references to U. The principles described herein, however, are applicable to research on fishes regardless of geographic location.
Investigators in other nations may benefit by modifying any of the specific provisions pertaining to the United States, thereby adopting guidelines consistent with the laws and regulations of their own government.
The UFR Committee urges that the Guidelines be endorsed and adopted adapted, where necessary by those state and federal authorities with regulatory responsibilities for fishes, offices with federal oversight e.Jun 26, · Essay, term paper research paper on Genetics.
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PLOS Genetics publishes original research that clearly demonstrates novelty, importance to a particular field, biological significance, and conclusions that are justified by the study..
Our aim is to make the editorial process rigorous and consistent, and to offer the best possible support to our authors throughout this process.
Expert international workgroups convened by the Alzheimer's Association and the National Institute on Aging (NIA), an agency of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), jointly issued four updated criteria and guidelines to diagnose Alzheimer's disease. Scientific research articles provide a method for scientists to communicate with other scientists about the results of their research.
A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner.
This doesn't necessarily reflect the order in. The ASHG offices are moving! Our phones will be transitioning between May , and we’ll be unable to provide phone support for membership, registration, and other inquiries during this time.
Guidelines Genetics Practice Advisory: Response to FDA's Authorization of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Gene Mutation Direct-to-Consumer Testing (ACOG, May ) Committee.