Messenger Amid the South China Sea dispute and the sinking of foreign fishing vessels, the narratives of nationalism in the national media have strengthened over the past three years. But it has been closely linked to the South China Sea dispute. From law to defence My recent study found that the South China Sea disputes were initially portrayed in mainstream media as political or law related topics
The Ethical Policy Dutch liberals confidently assumed that, just as freedom of enterprise would maximize welfare at home, so the application of European capital to the task of developing colonial resources would gradually improve the lot of colonial peoples.
By the end of the 19th century, 30 years of the Liberal Policy in Indonesia did not appear to have achieved that miracle. His suggestion was that The Netherlands turn from its strictly laissez-faire policy in the East Indies to pursue instead a positive welfare program supported by funds from the metropolitan treasury.
In a change of government in The Netherlands provided the opportunity for a new departure in policy along the lines suggested by van Deventer. According to the Ethical Policyas it was called, financial assistance from The Netherlands was to be devoted to the extension of health and education services and to the provision of agricultural extension services designed to stimulate the growth of the village economy.
The Ethical Policy was seen by its most fervent supporters as a noble experiment designed to transform Indonesian society, to enable a new elite to share in the riches of Western civilization, and to bring the colony into the modern world.
Its ultimate goals were, of course, not clearly defined. Despite these rather grandiose visions, the achievements of the Ethical Policy were much more modest.
It neither checked declining living standards nor promoted an agrarian revolution. It did provide agricultural assistance and advice, but this was directed to the improvement of techniques of irrigation and cultivation within the existing wet-rice technology of Java.
Its effect, therefore, was to confirm the gulf between the European economy of the estates, mines, oil wells, and large-scale commerce and the traditional, largely subsistence, Indonesian economy of wet-rice or shifting cultivation.
In education a little was done to provide a greater degree of opportunity at primary, secondary, and even tertiary levels, but at the end of the s only a handful of high school graduates were produced locally, and the literacy rate was calculated at just over 6 percent.
The goals of the Ethical Policy were set too high, and the devices adopted to implement them were too modest. Given the inertia of traditional societies, it was not to be expected that a new order would be created as easily as the proponents of the policy had hoped.
Nevertheless, during the years of its operation, the East Indies were exposed to tremendous forces of social change.
These forces, however, resulted not from the conscious plans of the Ethical Policy but from the undirected impact of Western economic development.
The population increase, together with urbanization, the penetration of a money economy to the village level, and the labour demands of Western enterprise combined to disrupt traditional patterns.
Where the Ethical Policy was most effective, despite the limitations of its educational achievement, was in producing a small educated elite that could give expression to the frustration of the masses in a society torn loose from its traditional moorings. Western currents of thought had their impact also within Islamic circles, where modernist ideas sought to reconcile the demands of Islam and the needs of the 20th century.
It is against this background that a self-conscious nationalist movement began to develop.
By contrast, the nationalism of the early 20th century was the product of the new imperialism and was part of wider currents of unrest affecting many parts of Africa and Asia that remained the subjects of Western colonialism.
In Indonesia nationalism was concerned not merely with resistance to Dutch rule but with new perceptions of nationhood—embracing the ethnic diversity of the archipelago and looking to the restructuring of traditional patterns of authority in order to enable the creation of Indonesia as a modern state.
It derived in part from specific discontents, the economic discriminations of colonial rule, the psychological hurt arising from the slights of social discriminationand a new awareness of the all-pervading nature of Dutch authority.Nationalism as the dominant force behind the Indonesian independence movement is the leading theme presented in the video, Barrel of a gun - Nationalism as Indonesian Essay introduction.
The turn of the twentieth century marked the beginning of nationalist stirrings .
Sukarno—Indonesia’s first national figure and first president—dissolved the elected assembly, introduced a concept known as Guided Democracy, and reinstated the constitution in The period of Guided Democracy was marked by the creation of a plethora of ministries, by the rise of the Indonesian.
In Indonesia and Vietnam, both countries had to fight for independence - Indonesia from the Dutch, and the Vietnamese from both its French colonizers and later the United States.
Click here to read the Chronology of Islam From 6th Century () C.E. to 20th Century () C.E. World of Islam; The Spread of Islam; General Characteristics of Islam. Though all mainstream politicians in Indonesia, as in other countries, are nationalist to one degree or another, the vehemence of Prabowo's nationalist message, and the passion with which it .
In Indonesia nationalism was concerned not merely with resistance to Dutch rule but with new perceptions of nationhood—embracing the ethnic diversity of the archipelago and looking to the restructuring of traditional patterns of authority in order to enable the creation of .